As noted above, the amount of compensation is paid in advance (at the beginning of the term of the contract), while interbank rates, such as LIBOR or EURIBOR, apply to late interest transactions (at the end of the repayment period). To account for this, it is necessary to discount the difference in interest rates using the offset rate as a discount rate. The amount of the settlement is therefore calculated as the present value of the interest rate differential: difference in interest rate – | (settlement rate – contract rate) | × (days during the contractual/360 period) × appointment contract (FRA) are non-prescription contracts between parties that set the interest rate to be paid on an agreed date in the future. An FRA is an agreement to exchange an interest rate bond on a fictitious amount. FRA is indicated with the FRA course. For example, if a U.S. dollar FRA is listed at 1.50% and a future borrower expects the 6-month libor rate to be above 1.50% in two months, they should buy an FRA. Interest rate futures contracts are accompanied by short-term futures contracts. Since future STIRTs are resigned to the same index as a subset of FRAs, IMM-FRAs, their pricing is linked.
The nature of each product has a pronounced gamma profile (convexity), which leads to rational price adjustments, not arbitration. This adjustment is called convex term adjustment (ACF) and is generally expressed in basis points.  In practical terms, the buyer of the FRA, which traps an interest rate on the credit, is protected from an increase in interest rates and the seller with a fixed interest rate is protected from a drop in interest rates. If interest rates do not go down or rise, no one will benefit. Although the N-Displaystyle N is the fictitious of the contract, the R-Displaystyle R is the fixed rate, the published -IBOR fixing rate and displaystyle rate of a decimal fraction of the value of the IBOR debit value. For the USD and EUR, it will be an ACT/360 agreement and an ACT/365 agreement. The cash amount is paid on the start date of the interest rate index (depending on the currency in which the FRA is traded, either immediately after or within two business days of the published IBOR fixing rate). The format in which the FRAs are listed is the term up to the due date and the due date, both expressed in months and generally separated by the letter “x.” If the compensation rate is higher than the contractual rate, the seller fra must pay the amount of compensation to the buyer. If the contract rate is higher than the billing rate, the buyer must pay the amount of compensation to the seller. If the contract rate and the clearing rate are the same, no payment is made. Interest rate swaps (IRS) are often considered a number of NAPs, but this view is technically incorrect due to the diversity of methods for calculating cash payments, resulting in very small price differentials.
Company A enters into an FRA with Company B, in which Company A obtains a fixed interest rate of 5% on a capital amount of $1 million in one year. In return, Company B receives the one-year LIBOR rate set in three years on the amount of capital.